Pediatricians have the capacity to treat major illnesses, but most of the patients that pediatricians see on a daily basis have issues that are related to the common sicknesses. A pediatrician will treat issues of cold, fever, infections, and minor injuries. The job of a pediatrician also deals with administering the periodic immunizations that all children are slated to receive. As for those pediatricians that deal with major illnesses on a frequent basis, they will often specialize in a specific kind of medical condition. That pediatrician may also be licensed to conduct surgery in their treatment methods.